ABG - arterial blood gas.
Adenitis - inflammation of a lymph node.
Aerosol - solution that is dispensed in a mist.
Ambu Bag - ventilating bag.
Angioedema - sudden onset of periodic, recurrent episodes of noninflammatory swelling of skin, mucous membranes, and other tissues, associated with food allergies, urticaria or possibly stress or emotional factors.
Aphonia - loss of voice.
Apnea Monitor - a machine that sounds an alarm when the infant stops breathing.
Apnea - temporary stop in breathing.
Artificial Airway - another word for tracheostomy tube.
Artificial Nose - see HME.
Asphyxia - insufficient intake of oxygen.
Aspiration pneumonia - pneumonia after inhaling foreign matter into the lungs.
Asplenia - absence of the spleen due to congenital or traumatic cause.
Asthma - difficulty breathing accompanied by wheezing caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of the mucous membrane.
Bacteria - germs.
BPD (bronchopulmonary dysplasia) - respiratory problem caused by mechanical ventilation.
Branchial cleft cyst - a malformation of the branchial cleft during embryogenesis such that the remnant forms a cyst, usually found in the lateral neck.
Bronchiolitis - inflammation of the bronchioles, often associated with bronchopneumonia. Also known as capillary bronchitis.
Bronchitis - inflammation of the bronchi.
Bronchoscopy - examination of the bronchi through a scope.
Cannula - the tube part of the tracheostomy tube.
Carina - area at the end of the trachea, the carina represents the origins of the left and right mainstem bronchi.
Cartilage - the tough tissue rings the wind pipe is made of cartilage.
Catheter - tube used to remove or inject fluids into the body.
CBC - complete blood count.
CBVP - Congenital Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis.
Cellulitis - inflammation of the skin.
CO2 (carbon dioxide) - gas that the body eliminates through the lungs.
CO2 monitor - a machine that monitors the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Connector - outside edge of the tracheostomy tube which connects to equipment
CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) - assisted ventilation that supports the infants own respiratory efforts.
CPR (CardioPulmonary Resuscitation) - a method for getting someone to breath again once they have stopped.
Cricothyrotomy - a medical procedure involving an incision being made between the cricoid and thyroid cartilages to maintain patency of the airway.
Croup - childhood respiratory disease characterized by a barking cough and difficulty breathing. Also known as laryngotracheobronchitis.
Cuff - the inflatable balloon on some tracheostomy tubes.
Cyanosis - a blue coloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to deoxygenation of the blood.
Decanulation - the removal of a tube.
Diaphragm - the big muscle below the lungs that controls breathing.
DIC - disposable inner cannula
Dying spells - episodes of bradycardia, apnea, and cyanosis. Also known as reflex apnea.
Dysphagia - difficulty in swallowing.
Dyspnea - labored respiration, difficult breathing, shortness of breath.
E T tube (Endotracheal Tube) - tube used to provide an airway through the trachea.
ECG - a medical test to record the electrical current in the heart. Also known as an electrocardiogram.
Echocardiography - a medical test using ultrasound and Doppler techniques to visualize the structure of the heart.
Emphysema - a condition of the lung characterized by destruction of lung tissue resulting in enlarged terminal bronchioles and reduction of their number.
Encrustation - hard, crusty, dried mucus.
Endoscopy - a generic medical procedure used to visualize the inside of an organ system. This includes bronchoscopy.
ENT Doctor - ear nose and throat doctor.
Epiglottis - a thin leaf-shaped flap that covers to entrance of the airway during swallowing to prevent aspiration into the lungs
Epiglottitis - inflammation of the epiglottis, This is a medical emergency.
Exhale - breathe out.
Expiration - breathe out.
Fenestrated - having openings.
Fistula - an abnormal tube-like passage from one body cavity to another.
Glottis - the sound-producing apparatus of the larynx, Also known as the voice box.
Goiter - a chronic enlargement of the thyroid gland not due to neoplasm often seen in endemic areas.
Hemorrhage - bleeding.
HME (heat and moisture exchanger) - a filter device that fits onto the end of the tracheostomy tube and warms and moistens the air the child breathes.
Humidity - moisture in the air.
Hyaline membrane disease - a disease causing respiratory distress usually in premature newborns in which hyalin, a glassy, eosinophilic material, is seen in the alveoli. Also known as respiratory distress syndrome.
Hydrogen Peroxide - (H2O2) mild antiseptic and cleansing agent.
Hypercapnea - the presence of an abnormally high amount of carbon dioxide in the blood. Also known as hypercarbia.
Hypopharynx - synonymous with larynx.
Hypoventilation - reduced rate and depth of breathing.
Hypoxia - the presence of an abnormally low amount of oxygen in the blood.
Inhale - breathe in.
Inspiration - breathe in.
Laryngectomy - removal of the larynx.
Laryngitis (acute infectious) - inflammation of the mucous membranes of the larynx usually secondary to influenza virus.
Laryngitis (spasmodic) - inflammation of the mucous membranes of the larynx generally causing stridor. The stridor subsides easily only to return on subsequent nights. Also known as spasmotic croup.
Laryngomalacia - a softening of the structures of the larynx. Also known as chondromalacia of the larynx.
Laryngoplasty - plastic surgery or reparation of the structures of the larynx.
Laryngoscopy - examination of the interior of the larynx with a scope.
Laryngotracheobronchitis - also known as viral croup.
Laryngotracheoplasty (LTP) - laryngeal and tracheal reconstrutive surgery.
Larynx - the voice box.
Leukocytosis - an elevation of the normal leukocyte blood count.
Lumen - inside part of the tube.
Lymphocytosis - an elevation of the normal lymphocyte blood count.
Malacia - a softening of the affected structure.
mm - millimeter
Mucus - slippery fluid that is produced in the lungs and windpipe.
Nebulizer - a machine that puts moisture (fine particles) and/or medicine directly into the lungs.
Neck plate - part of the tracheostomy tube that rests against the neck.
Neonatal - the first 6 weeks after birth.
Neoplasm - a tumor or growth.
NICU - Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.
O2 - oxygen.
Obturator - the semi-rigid stick you put into the tracheostomy tube to help guide it into the opening in the neck.
Otolyringologist - ear nose and throat doctor.
Peritonsillar abscess - an abscess involving the structures around the tonsil. This is a surgical emergency.
Phonation - talking or making sounds with the vocal cords.
PICU - Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.
Pliable - soft, flexible.
Pneumonia - an inflammation of the lung parenchyma, often causing consolidation of the affected part with the alveolar air spaces being filled with blood, cells, and fibrin. It has many causes.
Pneumothorax - the presence of gas or air in the pleural cavity.
Pulmonologist - lung doctor.
Pulse Oximeter - machine that monitors the oxygen saturation of the blood using an infrared detector placed across a capillary bed such as a digit or ear.
Rale - a crackling sound heard on auscultation of the chest.
Respirator - a machine for artificial breathing.
Retractions - pulling in at the chest during breathing (intercostal and/or substernal)
Retropharyngeal abscess - an abscess involving the structures in the posterior pharynx. This is a surgical emergency.
Rhinitis - an inflammation of the nasal mucosa.
Rhinorrhea - a discharge from the nasal mucosa.
Rhonchi - a wheezing sound heard on auscultation of the chest.
Saline - (normal saline or 0.9% sodium chloride) solution similar to water found in the body.
Secretions - another word for mucus.
Sinusitis - an inflammation of the sinus mucosa.
SLP (speech and language pathologist) - A person trained to help with speaking and swallowing problems.
Speaking Valve - a one-way valve that lets air come in through the tracheostomy tube, but then sends it out past the vocal cords and mouth to make talking possible.
Steeple sign - a radiographic sign seen on the anteroposterior endolateral neck x-rays in children with croup. A narrowing of the air column in the hypopharynx is seen resembling a church spire.
Stenosis - the narrowing or constriction of the lumen of a structure. Complete stenosis is also known as atresia.
Sterile - free from germs.
Stoma - hole or opening (in the neck where you insert the tracheostomy tube).
Stridor - an inspiratory, high-pitched sound caused by obstruction in the upper airway.
Subglottic stenosis - stenosis of the structures below the glottis.
Suctioning - vacuuming up mucus in the tracheostomy tube.
Swaddle - to wrap a baby like a mummy with only his head sticking out.
Swedish Nose - see HME.
Sx - suction.
Thermal Humidifying Filter - see HME.
Thermovent T - see HME.
Thumb sign - a radiographic sign seen on lateral endolateral neck x-rays in children with epiglottitis, caused by the marked swelling of aryepiglottic folds and arytenoid cartilages. The swelling resembles the human thumb.
Trach - short for tracheostomy tube.
Trachea - wind pipe.
Tracheal Esophageal Fistulas (TEF) - abnormal opening between the trachea and esophagus.
Tracheoesophageal fistula - generally a congenital abnormality involving a communication between the trachea and esophagus. It may also be acquired.
Tracheomalacia - softening of the cartilage of the trachea.
Tracheoplasty - plastic surgery or reparation of the structures of the trachea.
Tracheostenosis - contraction or narrowing of the trachea.
Tracheostomy - opening into the trachea.
Tracheotomy - a medical procedure creating an opening in the trachea.
URI - Upper respiratory tract infection.
Ventilator - a machine that helps a person breathe.
Vocal Cords - two strips of tissue in the voice box in the neck.
Web - a thin tissue or membrane bridging a space.